Monday, April 9, 2012

Michael Jackson's Birth Name, True/Legal Name

Historical and Legal Overview [updated 04 Aug 2013, 15:27 UTC]
Updated: page numbers referenced in U.S. passport names manual. Note: If a page excerpt does not appear in a page number link, click 'page image' or 'longer excerpt' to see an image of it. Your browser must accept cookies from Google Books to view all its page excerpts.

* Clarke, Donald, ed. "JACKSON, Michael". The Penguin encyclopedia of popular music. Penguin Books. 1990. ISBN 0140511474. p.588, page image "(b Michael Joe Jackson, 29 Aug. '58, Gary, Ind.)" (1989 edition ISBN 0670803499 p.588)

* Jackson, Jermaine. You Are Not Alone: Michael, Through a Brother's Eyes. Simon and Schuster, 2011-09-13. ISBN 1451651597 p.43, page image '"Joe" was his middle name, as recorded on his birth certificate.'
This quote comes from a paragraph about how his parents named their children. Jermaine was referring to the birth name (the first legal name) and exact legal name (if no sources indicate a formal legal name change) which may differ from the common name. Note that "Marilyn Monroe" is not a birth name even though it is on documents throughout her adult life e.g. her will, death certificate, autopsy report, etc. And even before she legally changed her name to Marilyn Monroe, it was used on legal documents that are not primary identification and do not have explicit statements about the "true name" by a government agency or court (so the name may be a new name acquired by the "usage method", which is permitted in California). Also, Marilyn's mother changed the spelling of the father's surname on Marilyn's birth certificate, and Marilyn changed the spelling of her surname on her first marriage certificate (see further below).

"The California driver license and ID card have been declared as primary identification documents in this state by the California legislature" and your current name must match the "true full name" on a "birth date/legal presence document" (BDLP) listed by the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).
From FBI Records
* "Michael Jackson 62 File Part 02 of 03" (62D-LA-162715)
- p.4: DMV record "Date:09-30-93", "Lic/Iss:09-06-85" (license issue date)
- p.6: Application for Drivers License or Identification Card
- p.8: Driver license "9-6-85" at the bottom, "Expires 1989"
(Note: Current policy for "Term of License Period for Renewal" "Every original driver's license expires on the fifth birthday of the applicant following the date of the application for the license.")
- pp. 45, 47: "...Michael Jackson whose true name is Michael Joe Jackson, date of birth August 29, 1958." (p.44 statement date: "10/13/1993")
"Joe" is consistently stated as his middle name in his FBI records, which documents investigations between 1992-2005 e.g.:
* Michael Jackson 62 File Part 03 of 03 (62D-LA-236081)
* Michael Jackson 252 File Part 01 of 01 (252B-IR-6808) p.7, p.9 "Jackson surrendered himself to the custody of the SBSD on 11/20/2003...surrendered his passport, and was thereafter released." (A U.S. passport is a DMV-listed BDLP document).
* Michael Jackson 305 File Part 01 of 01 (305b-la-239204)

* ("Court Events". Remote Electronic Access for Extraordinary Criminal Cases. Superior Court of California, County of Santa Barbara):
- "True Name: Michael Joe Jackson" and "People vs. Michael Joe Jackson" is on all the "Criminal Calendar" documents (21 documents from 5/28/2004 to 7/21/2005)
- Also, "The People of the State of California, Plaintiff v. Michael Joe Jackson, Defendant" is on all the "Minute Order" documents e.g.,
and from the "Court Documents" page ( on all court documents by the Santa Barbara District Attorney and the Verdict e.g. ,

"Michael Joe Jackson" has been the only name explicitly identified as his "true name" (i.e. legal name) during his lifetime by government agencies (FBI, Superior Court of California) with access to his primary identification and primary evidence of U.S. citizenship; and as the name on primary evidence of U.S. citizenship (birth certificate) and primary identification (drivers license with his DMV record and license application).

Use of the name Michael Joe Jackson as songwriter/recording artist/publisher:
A. Songwriter name with Broadcast Music, Inc. (licensing for his songs)
"Songwriter/Composer: JACKSON MICHAEL JOE". BMI Repertoire. "Current Affiliation: BMI   CAE/IPI #: 2961801   There are 220 Work Titles"
- "JACKSON MICHAEL (CAE/IPI #: 523553664)" and "JACKSON MICHAEL J (CAE/IPI #: 523553762)" have the same list of songs as above, with "JACKSON MICHAEL JOE" still appearing as the songwriter name when you click on the song titles, except for 9 songs (before the 7 songs registered since Oct. 2012 with songwriter name "JACKSON, MICHAEL"): "JACKSON MICHAEL" was used on "BABY'S FIRE", "BLACK OR WHITE RIFFS", "MAN IN BLACK", "PRESSURE", "SEVEN DIGITS", "VERDICT", and "WANNA BE STARTIN SOMETHIN 2008". "JACKSON MICHAEL J" was used on "SERIOUS EFFECT" and "SHE GOT IT".
- Michael Joe Jackson was named as a plaintiff in BMI federal court cases up to 2009 (see cases below).
- Writer Affiliation:
p.2 "WRITER APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS...Your FULL LEGAL NAME (as it appears on your Social Security card) must be given on line 1 and again in your signature at the bottom of the application. Your name must be exactly the same in both places."
"MY NEW LEGAL NAME...This form must be accompanied with:
* Court authorized document supporting name change... * Completed IRS W9 form"
* Song lists of co-writers:
* Note: Some songwriters are missing from the search results when searching by "Songwriter/Composer" on BMI. You can find these songwriter pages through the songwriter links in the pages for the songwriter's various songs e.g. JACKSON JERMAINE = JACKSON JERMAINE L (both with CAE/IPI #: 74903271).
B. Documents from his early career
1) "Lot 22310 Jackson Five Signed Contract...dated May 21, 1970". 2007 April Signature Entertainment/Music Memorabilia Auction #647. Heritage Auctions. p.1 'between WILLIAM MORRIS AGENCY, INC. hereinafter called the "AGENT"...and JOHN PORTER JACKSON, JR., JERMAINE LAJAUNE JACKSON, TARIANO ADARYLL JACKSON, MARLON DAVID JACKSON, SIGMUND ESCO JACKSON, MICHAEL JOE JACKSON p/k/a THE JACKSON FIVE'
Live Auctioneers: The Jacksons Auction 2007/05/31 offered by Guernsey's
2) Lot 761A Michael Jackson's Motown Identity Card '..."Motown Center Identification Certificate," ...identifies him as a recording artist of International Management Company. The card expired in 1970 ["Date of Expiration 8/29/1970"], and bears his signature, Michael Joe Jackson.' Enlarged image
3) Signature and name in 1976 contract for one of his first published songs:
* Lot 762C Michael Jackson Songwriter's Contract for "Blues Away"
"This contract dated August 9, 1976, is from "The Jacksons" album released in 1976. Signed by Michael Jackson as writer and Richard A Arons as publisher." "Peacock Music Publishing Company" is named as the publisher on p.1. Signatures on p.2
4) The Jacksons' 1977-1978 songwriting contracts:
* Lot 762B The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "Jackson Opening" (Part of Musical Score for Jacksons TV Series January 1977) January 21, 1977 [date on p.1 of the contract, description gives the incorrect date]. "Signed by all five Jackson brothers as writers and their father Joseph Jackson as the publisher."
* Lot 761C The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "Different Kind of Lady"
"This contract dated May 27 1977 for "Different Kind of Lady" was originally selected to be in the "Destiny" album, but it was replaced by "Blame it on the Boogie" because Epic insisted that the record include at least one song not written by the Jacksons." ["Different Kind of Lady" is on the "Goin' Places" album, released in 1977.]
Heritage Auctions
* "Lot 64 Jackson 5 Rare Signed Contract". Entertainment Legends, History & Pop Culture Auctions Presented By Odyssey Auction #1067. Aug 19, 2003. "May 27, 1977. A Standard Songwriter's Contract...royalty terms for the use of the track "Do What You Want"'. Enlarged image. This contract was auctioned again below:
* 'Lot 23283 Jackson Five Signed Contract for the song "Do What You Want."' 2004 September Music Memorabilia #606. 'song that appeared on the group's album "Goin' Places" as "Do What You Wanna." ...signing on behalf of Peacock...was patriarch Joe Jackson.' p.1, p.2
All 1978 contracts below are signed with the name Michael Joe Jackson:
* 'Lot 47032 Jackson 5 Signed Contract for the song "That Girl"' 2010 November Beverly Hills Signature Music & Entertainment Auction #7022. "dated August 1, 1978" p.1, p.2
Guernsey's: The Jacksons Auction 2007/05/31
* Lot 761B The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "All Night Dancin'". August 1, 1978, from the "Destiny" album. "This contract dated August 1, 1978, is from the "Destiny" album. "Destiny" is historically significant, as it was the first album to be written and produced by Michael Jackson and his brothers." p.1, p.2
* Lot 761D The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "Destiny". August 1, 1978, from the "Destiny" album. p.1, p.2
* Lot 761E The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "Things I Do For You" August 1, 1978, from the "Destiny" album. p.1, p.2
* Lot 761F The Jacksons Songwriter's Contract for "That's What You Get For Being Polite" September 14, 1978, from the "Destiny" album. p.1, p.2
Julien's Auctions: Rock Legends (#11) 03/26/2011
* Lot 140 of 192: THE JACKSONS SIGNED SONGWRITER CONTRACT 'Songwriting contract between The Jacksons and Peacock Music (operated by Joe Jackson) on August 1, 1978...for the song "Destiny"' Signatures enlarged
[From the signatures, this contract appears to be the same contract above auctioned by Guernsey's in May 2007. The two contracts below for "Shake Your Body Down to the Ground" appear to be different copies. There is usually a signed copy of the contract for each signee.]
* Lot 141 of 192: THE JACKSONS SIGNED CONTRACT September 14, 1978, for the song "Shake Your Body Down to the Ground (Dance and Shout)". p.1, p.2
Heritage Auctions: 2011 July Dallas Signature Music & Entertainment Auction #7038
* Lot 46254: The Jacksons Writer Clearance Forms for the Song "All Night Dancin'" ("8/4/78" to the right of their legal names and "8/17/78" on top) p.1
- Each form has at the top "BOTH COPIES MUST BE RETURNED TO BMI" and is signed with the writer's middle name in his signature except for Tariano Adaryll[1] [sic] ("Tito") Jackson's form which is signed "Tariano A. Jackson". The address of the songwriters is also in the Who's Who in America listings below from the 1976-1977 to 1980-1981 editions.
[1] From p.43 of Jermaine Jackson's book: "And "Tariano Adaryl" became "Tito" because it was easier for us all."

* Lot 46255: Michael Jackson and The Jacksons Signed Contract for the Song "Shake Your Body Down to the Ground" (September 14, 1978) p.1, p.2
C. Name used in music copyrights and as a plaintiff in U.S. Federal Courts
1) Jackson, Jermaine. You Are Not Alone: Michael, Through a Brother's Eyes. Simon and Schuster, 2011-09-13. p.iv, page image [Years appear to be switched for these two songs]. '"Billie Jean" © 1987 Mijac Music (BMI). Words and music by Michael Joe Jackson... "Smooth Criminal" © 1982 Mijac Music (BMI). Words and music by Michael Joe Jackson;'
2) Plaintiff publisher "Michael Joe Jackson d/b/a Mijac Music" in a civil case with his song '"Way You Make Me Feel" a/k/a "The Way You Make Me Feel" a/k/a "Hot Fever"':
* The Federal reporter, Second series / West's federal reporter: cases argued and determined in the United States courts of appeals and Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, Volume 949. West Publishing Company. 1992. p.1485, page image
* Bureau of National Affairs (Arlington, Va.). The United States patents quarterly. Associated Industry Publications, 1992. p.1183, page image
* Brown, Ralph Sharp and Robert C. Denicola. Statutory and case supplement to Cases on copyright, unfair competition, and other topics bearing on the protection of literary, musical, and artistic works, 5th ed. Foundation Press, 1993. ISBN 1566620724 p.346, page image
* Brown, Ralph S. and Robert C. Denicola. Cases on copyright, unfair competition, and related topics bearing on the protection of literary, musical, and artistic works, 7th ed. Foundation Press, 1998. ISBN 1566626072 p.324, page image

- The full court decision online:
"Broadcast Music, Inc., et al., Plaintiffs-appellants, v. Claire's Boutiques, Inc., D/b/a Claire's Boutiques, And d/b/a Arcadia, Defendant-appellee." 949 F.2d 1482. United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit. Argued Sept. 4, 1991. Decided Dec. 11, 1991.
> Footnote 2: "The first five songs listed on a schedule to BMI's complaint"
(or, footnote 2)
3) Plaintiff in U.S. Federal District Courts cases with BMI (with documents online)
* West's federal supplement, First series, Volume 746. West Publishing Company. 1991. p.320, page image "...Michael Joe Jackson d/b/a Mijac Music...Plaintiffs and Counterclaim Defendants" (Full text: "BROADCAST MUSIC v. HEARST/ABC VIACOM ENT. SERVICES". 746 F.Supp. 320. New York Southern District Court. Aug. 29, 1990).
* "Broadcast Music, Inc. et al v. Its Amore Corp. et al." Case Number: 3:2008cv00570. Filed: March 28, 2008. Pennsylvania Middle District Court. "Plaintiffs: ...MICHAEL JOE JACKSON, d/b/a MiJac Music..."
- "Document 40: MEMORANDUM and ORDER denying 37 Motion for Reconsideration Signed by Honorable James M. Munley on 8/13/09". pp. 1-2, 9-10 "...MICHAEL JOE JACKSON, d/b/a MiJac Music, ...Plaintiffs v. ... "

* "Broadcast Music, Inc. et al v. JMJ Enterprises of Erie County, Ltd. et al." Case Number: 1:2008cv00946. Filed: December 23, 2008. New York Western District Court. "Plaintiffs: ...MICHAEL JOE JACKSON..."
* BROADCAST MUSIC, INC. v. CDZ, INC. 724 F.Supp.2d 930. Illinois Central District Court. July 13, 2010. Footnote 1: "The songs include Billie Jean, published by Michael Joe Jackson, d/b/a Mijac Music..." (on "Document 37: ORDER granting 24 Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment against Defendants CDZ, Inc., Dennis J. Mullen, Craig J. Swoik, each individually.". Footnote 1 on p.2)
* Sidenote: U.S. Small Business Administration
"A fictitious name or "Doing Business As" (DBA) name is a business name that is different from your personal name, the names of your partners or the officially registered name of your LLC or corporation...For example: John Smith sets up a painting business and chooses to name it "John Smith Painting." Because "John Smith Painting" is considered a DBA (assumed) name, John will need to register it as a fictitious business name with a government agency."
- How to Register your "Doing Business As" Name [Chart with "DBA Filing Requirements" for each state]: "California: Individuals or entities doing business for profit under a name different from the owner(s) full legal name(s) must file a Fictitious Name Statement with the registrar-recorder/county clerk office in the county where the business resides."

* "MICHAEL JOE JACKSON, d/b/a MiJac Music" -> Full legal name = "Michael Joe Jackson", DBA name = "MiJac Music"
- Registration of Mijac Music can be found at the Los Angeles County Registrar-Recorder/County Clerk "You may search and view the names indexed to Fictitious Business Names statements which expire 5 years from the date filed in the office of the County Clerk."
4) Plaintiff in BMI cases in U.S. Federal District Courts (documents on PACER)
* 100 cases on filed between 1/18/1990 - 1/26/2009 by year of filing:
1990: 11 cases; 1992: 2 cases (3:92cv05387, 5:92cv20500); 1993: 7 cases; 1994: 11 cases; 1995: one case; 1997: one case; 2000: 3 cases (2:00cv05208, 1:00cv08640, 1:00cv09070); 2001: 6 cases; 2002: 14 cases; 2003: 2 cases (2:03cv00899, 2:03cv04281); 2006: 13 cases; 2007: 18 cases; 2008: 10 cases; 2009: one case
* 31 cases on filed between 02/21/2007 - 05/27/2009 (click the link to a case to see the full list of plaintiffs)
[Note: the name was put inside " " to exclude cases from the search results where different parties have a part of the name instead of the full name.]

5) Petitioner for a writ of certiorari from the U.S. Supreme Court
* "Patent, Trademark & Copyright Cases Denied Review: Broadcast Music, Inc. v. Claire's Boutiques (91-1437)". Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal, Vol. 15, No. 504. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 1991. p.71, full page
6) Defendant in a U.S. Federal District Court for copyright infringement
* "I Film Inc et al v. MJJ Productions Inc et al". Docket: 2:04cv10234. Filed: 12/15/2004. California Central District Court. Terminated: 02/28/2006. Judge: Ronald S.W. Lew

The name Michael Joe Jackson in periodicals, books, and television
* "What's it like to be Michael Jackson". Soul. Vol. 5, No. 5. August 10, 1970. Hollywood, California: Soul Publications, Inc. ISSN 0586-8394 p.1
* "Life-Lines of the Jackson Five". New Musical Express. No. 1249. December 19, 1970. London: IPC Magazines Ltd. ISSN 0028-6362 p.6 "Full real name: Michael Joe Jackson"
* Motoviloff, Ellen. The Jackson 5. New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1972 (3rd printing). OCLC 3364818 p.85 (Written in 1971).
* "J5 sock it to you one-by-one". 16 Spec Magazine. No. 30. August 1971. New York: 16 Magazine, Inc. OCLC 31379953 p.27
* Woolery, George W. "Jackson 5ive, The". Children's Television: The First Thirty-Five Years, 1946-1981: Part I: Animated Cartoon Series. Scarecrow Press, 1983. ISBN 0810815575 p.150, page image "Premiere: September 11, 1971...Last Program: September 1, 1973" (1991 edition ISBN 0810815575 p.150, page image)
* Burnell, Walter Price. "The Intimate Lives of the Jackson 5". Black Stars. Vol. 1, No. 1. November 1971. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0163-3007 p.42
* "100 fax on the J5 by their dad, Joe Jackson". Tiger Beat. Vol. 8, No. 2. November 1971. New York: Sterling-Macfadden. ISSN 0040-7380 p.46
* "Michael Reveals All!" Right On! Vol. 1, No. 4. January 1972. New York: Sterling-Macfadden. ISSN 0048-8305 p.43 [Handwritten answers to fan questions. Also in: Grant, Adrian. Michael Jackson: A Visual Documentary 1958 to 2009. Omnibus Press, 2009. ISBN 1849382611 p.19, full page]
* "The Jackson 5 answer 50 funky?s! / J5-50 funky?s". 16 Magazine. Vol. 13, No. 8. January 1972. New York: 16 Magazine, Inc. ISSN 0270-899X, 1075-3109 p.44 "What is your full real name? My full name is Michael Joe Jackson..."
* "A six-pax of Jax fax!" Teen Life. March 1972. New York: Filosa Publications. OCLC 54845091 (Dell 04737) p.31 "Full real name: Michael Joe Jackson  Birthdate: August 29, 1958"
* Handsaker, Gene. "Michael Joe Jackson--idol of the black teeny boppers". Meriden (Conn.) Journal. 4 May 1972. Associated Press. p.14, image (Re-titled in: Lewiston Evening Journal. 1972-05-02. p.15; The Evening Independent. 1972-05-04. p.5-D. Re-titled & shortened: Lawrence Daily Journal-World. 1972-05-03. p.18; Kentucky New Era. 1972-05-04. p.19)
* "J5 Rompin' Raw 'n Raunchy" (sub-article: "Sing along with Mike Jackson"). 16 Spec Magazine. No. 41. July 1972. New York: 16 Magazine, Inc. OCLC 31379953 p.22
* Gregory, James. The soul of the Jackson 5. Curtis Books, 1973. OCLC 6951869 p.14, page image "born Michael Joe Jackson"
* Stambler, Irwin. "Jackson 5, The". Encyclopedia of pop, rock and soul. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1974. LCCN 73087393 p.263 (1977 edition ISBN 0312054480, 0900997230, 0312250258 p.263)
* Morse, Charles, and Ann Morse. Jackson Five. Mankato, Minn.: Creative Education, 1975. ISBN 0871913895 p.30
* Manning, Steve. The Jacksons. Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. 1976. ISBN 0672521482 p.62 (Steve Manning was hired in 1970 by the Jackson 5's road manager, Suzanne DePasse, to answer their fan mail and became a house guest of the Jacksons, according to pp.52-54 of Nelson George's 1984 book The Michael Jackson Story listed below).
* Lake, Harriet. On Stage, Jackson Five. Mankato, Minn.: Creative Education, 1976. ISBN 0871914840 p.11
* "50 J-5 Facts!" Right On! Vol. 5, No. 9. July 1976. New York: Sterling-Macfadden. ISSN 0048-8305 p.20
* Manning, Steve. "Why Michael Jackson Is A Living Legend". Black Stars. Vol. 5, No. 1. November 1976. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0163-3007 p.41
* Note on "Marquis Who's Who" publications: "Proofs will be provided shortly thereafter to those selected to appear" and listees are given "update forms" to make revisions.
* Marquis Who's Who publications: index to all books, 1976, 2nd ed. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1976. ISBN 0837914035 p.231, page image
* "Jackson, Michael Joe". Who's who in America 1976-1977, 39th ed., Vol. 1. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1976. ISBN 0837901391 p.1573 "singer; b. Gary, Ind., Aug. 29, 1958; s. Joseph Walter and Katherine Esther (Scruse) J. ...Lead singer Jackson-Five, 1969--; performer on numerous TV programs; recs. for Motown Records. Recipient gold and platinum record awards. Address: 6255 Sunset Blvd Hollywood CA 90028" [This address (unit #1023) is on the above 1978 BMI "Writer Clearance Forms" for "All Night Dancin'" and in the Who's Who in America listings below up to the 1980-1981 41st ed.]
* "Jackson, Michael Joe". Who's who in America 1978-1979, 40th ed., Vol. 1. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1978. ISBN 0837901405 p.1627 "Lead now called Jacksons...recs. for Epic Records; performed at Queen's Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee, May 1977. ...Recs. include Forever, Michael; Jacksons; Joyful Jukebox Music; Moving Violation."
* Nite, Norm N., and Ralph M. Newman. "The Jackson Five". Rock on: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock 'n Roll, Volume 2: The Modern Years: 1964-Present. T. Y. Crowell Co. 1978. ISBN 0690011962 p.242, page image
* White, Timothy. 'Blame It On the Boogie? Michael Jackson: A 20-year-old scarecrow looks back on life / "Wiz" Kid: Michael Jackson's Gamble'. Crawdaddy. Issue 91. December 1978. New York: Crawdaddy Pub. Co. ISSN 0011-0833 p.48 (Has excerpts from his 1977 interviews in Timothy White's 1990 book Rock Lives: Profiles & Interviews listed below).
* Lucas, Bob. "Special Report: The Jacksons 10 Years Later" (subsection: "Joseph Jackson talks about his famous sons"). Jet. Vol. 55, No. 20. 1 Feb 1979. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0021-5996 p.60 (full report begins on p.14), page image "MICHAEL JOE JACKSON, 20, a Virgo (Aug. 29, 1958)"
* Manning, Steve. "10th Anniversary Salute to The Jacksons: Ten years at the top". Black Radio Exclusive. Vol. 4, No. 14. April 13, 1979. Studio City, Calif.: Sidney Miller, Jr. ISSN 0745-5992 p.8
* Sanders, Charles L. "The Jacksons - No Longer Little Boys". Ebony. Vol. 34, No. 11. Sep 1979. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0012-9011 p.35, page image
Side note: First use of the name Michael Joseph Jackson
* Hollomon, Rickey. "How much do you really know about the J5 and their family?" Right On! Vol. 4, No. 5. March 1975. New York: Sterling-Macfadden. ISSN 0048-8305 p.59
* "Jackson 5 fact sheet". Right On! Vol. 4, No. 11. September 1975. New York: Sterling-Macfadden. ISSN 0048-8305 p.59
* Manning, Steve. "The truth according to Michael Jackson". Black Stars. Vol. 7, No. 3. January 1978. Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0163-3007 p.21 "...Michael Jackson has changed the now handsome, sensitive, mature young man. In this exclusive interview, Michael Joseph Jackson talks candidly to our readers..."; p.28
* Jet used the name Michael Joseph Jackson in an interview just after the Aug. 10, 1979 release of "Off the Wall", his first solo album for Epic.
Johnson, Robert E. "Michael Jackson: Nearly 21 but has no marriage plans, dates but not steady, fears love-sick fans, talks about racism and develops own lifestyle". Jet. Vol. 56, No. 22. 16 Aug 1979. Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0021-5996 p.30, page image "Michael Joseph (Smiley) Jackson, the angelic-voiced lead singer..."
- Jackson, Michael. Moonwalk. Random House Digital, Inc., 2009. ISBN 0307716988 (Originally published by Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0385247125) p.179, page image 'Off the Wall was released in August 1979, the same month I turned twenty-one and took control of my own affairs, and it was definitely one of the major landmarks of my life.'s eventual success proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that a former "child star" could mature into a recording artist with contemporary appeal.'
* Salvo, Patrick, and Jay Steinberg. "Michael Jackson Interview / Michael Jackson: Superstar at 21". Sepia. Vol. 29, No. 2. February 1980. Sepia Publishing Corp. ISSN 0037-2374 p.49, longer excerpt "The Jacksons, with their full names and dates of birth, are: ...Michael Joe, August 29. 1958..."
* "Jackson, Michael Joe". Who's who in America 1980-1981, 41st ed., Vol. 1. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1980. ISBN 0837901413 p.1684 "...appeared in the film The Wiz, 1978, in TV series The Jacksons, 1976-77; recs. include Got to Be There, Rockin' Robin, I Wanna Be Where You Are, Ben, With a Child's Heart, We're Almost There."
* Nite, Norm N. "The Jackson Five". Rock on: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock 'n Roll, Volume 2: The Modern Years: 1964-Present. Crowell, 1980. ISBN 0690011962 p.242, page image (1982 edition ISBN 0061816434 p.316)
* Carlton, Joseph R. "Popular Composers & Lyricists: I, J". Carlton's complete reference book of music. Carlton Publications, 1980. ISBN 0937348007 p.296
- "Songs: D", p.41 "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough w&m/Michael Joe Jackson"
* Lane, Hana Umlauf, ed. "Entertainers: Singers: The Jackson 5". The World Almanac Book of Who. World Almanac Publications, 1980. ISBN 0139678441 p.268
* Kaplan, Mike. "Jacksons, The." Variety international showbusiness reference. Garland Pub. 1981-05-01 ISBN 0824093410 p.143, page image
* "Jackson, Michael Joe". Who's who in America 1982-1983, 42nd ed., Vol. 1. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1982. ISBN 0837901421 p.1648 "...recs. include...Off the Wall, 1979."
* Pitts Jr., Leonard. Papa Joe's Boys: The Jacksons Story. Cresskill, N.J.: Sharon Publications, 1983. ISBN 0895310376 p.84 (Same quote in: Those incredible Jackson boys. Sharon Publications, 1984-06-14. ISBN 0451133072 p.119, page image; and in: "Michael Jackson". Top Rockers of the 80s. Sharon Publications, 1985-09-30. ISBN 0451821254 p.34).
* Pareles, Jon and Patricia Romanowski, eds. "The Jackson 5/The Jacksons". The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Rolling Stone Press/Summit Books. 1983. ISBN 0671434578 p.275, longer excerpt
* Kaplan, Mike. "Biographies: Jacksons, The". Variety's who's who in show business. Garland Pub., 1983-01-01. ISBN 0824090969 p.155, page image (1985 ed. ISBN 0824041917 p.174, page image; 1989 Rev. edition ISBN 0835226654 p.193, page image)
Side note: First use of the name Michael Joseph Jackson in Who's Who in America
* "Jackson, Michael Joseph". Who's who in America 1984-1985, 43rd ed., Vol. 1. Marquis Who's Who, Inc. 1984. ISBN 083790143X p.1625 "...recs. include...Thriller (listed in Guiness Book of World Records as most successful LP in rec. history); narrated: E.T.: The Extraterrestrial storybook, 1982."
* "People In The News: Nobody Knows This Jackson". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. 25 Jan 1984. Associated Press. p.8-A, page image
* George, Nelson. The Michael Jackson story. Dell Publishing Co., Inc. 1984. ISBN 0440155924 pp.5, 21, page image (Page numbers from the 1984 New English Library edition ISBN 0450057518).
* "Michael: the innocence of a babe, the wisdom of a sage". Blues & soul. No. 413. August 14-27, 1984. London, U.K.: Napfield Ltd. ISSN 0959-6550 p.10
* White, Timothy. "Michael Jackson". Rock stars. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1984. ISBN 0941434508 p.235
* Bronson, Fred. "I Want You Back, The Jackson Five". The Billboard Book of Number One Hits, 1st ed. Billboard Publications, 1985. ISBN 0823075222 p.267 "One night, Joe came home and discovered his second oldest son, Toriano Adaryll Jackson (Tito), had been fooling around with the guitar he played in the Falcons. ...Sigmund Esco (Jackie), Jermaine LaJaune and Tito were joined later by Marlon David and Michael Joe." (1988 2nd edition ISBN 0823075451 p.267)
* "Jackson, Michael". Academic American Encyclopedia, Volume 11. Grolier Inc. 1985. ISBN 0717220087 p.343, longer excerpt "...singer-dancer Michael Joe Jackson, b. Gary, Ind., Aug. 29, 1958, is first and foremost a brilliant entertainer." (1989 edition ISBN 0717220249 p.343)
* Weiss, Paulette. "Biography: Jackson, Michael Joe". The Americana annual, 1985: an encyclopedia of the events of 1984 / Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana. Ed. Bernard S. Cayne. Grolier, 1985. ISBN 071720216X p.135, longer excerpt "By 1984...Jackson's phenomenal international success merited comparison with that of The Beatles and Elvis Presley. At 25, Jackson had surpassed many of their achievements. His unique fusion of R&B, rock, and pop musical styles defied categorization. ...In 1984 the singer also received an unprecedented eight Grammy awards. ...Jackson's summer 1984 Victory Tour with his brothers was both technically and commercially the largest tour ever mounted. ...Michael began a parallel solo 1971 with the hit single [Stambler 1974, p.264 'Called "Got to Be There," it moved to number four in December'] and album Got To Be There. ...The LP Destiny in 1978 marked a turning point for Jackson: it tapped his abundant writing and production skills for the first time."
* "People in the News: Michael Jackson". Collier's 1985 year book covering the year 1984. (Annual supplement to Collier's encyclopedia). Macmillan Educational Company, 1985. LCCN 39017311 p.396
* "Jackson2...3. Michael (Joe)." Collins dictionary of the English language, 2nd ed. HarperCollins, 1986. ISBN 0004331346 p.813
* "Jackson, Michael Joe". The New Lexicon Webster's dictionary of the English language (Encyclopedic edition). New York: Lexicon, 1987. ISBN 0717245357 p.519
* Ploski, Harry A., and James De Bois Williams. "George H. Hill: Professor, Writer". The Negro almanac: a reference work on the African American, 5th ed. Gale Research Inc./Bellwether Pub. Co. 1989. ISBN 0810377063 p.1000, page image "Michael Joe Jackson: A Bio-Bibliography (1985)" [Article also appears in Reference library of Black America, Volume 4. Gale Research Inc. 1990 (1992 printing). p.1000, page image].
* Stambler, Irwin. "Jacksons, The; Jackson 5". Encyclopedia of pop, rock and soul, revised edition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. ISBN 0312025734 p.318 "Michael Joe Jackson, born August 29, 1958", p.319 (Same quote in the 1974 edition).
* The above 1989 edition of the Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music
* Hardy, Phil, and Dave Laing. "The Jackson Five". The Faber Companion to 20th-Century Popular Music. Faber & Faber, 1990. ISBN 0571138373 p.388 (1995 2nd ed. ISBN 0571171486 p.459. Also in: Hardy, Phil, and Dave Laing. "The Jackson Five". Da Capo Companion to 20th-Century Popular Music. Da Capo Press, 1995. ISBN 0306806401 p.459, page image)
* Stuessy, Joe. "Michael Jackson". Rock and roll: its history and stylistic development. Pearson Prentice Hall. 1990 ISBN 0137824262 p.347, page image (1994 2nd ed. ISBN 0137826087 p.346, 1999 3rd ed. ISBN 0136764959 p.348)
* White, Timothy. "Michael Jackson". Rock Lives: Profiles & Interviews. Holt, 1990. ISBN 0805013962 p.465 (Includes more of the 1977 interviews initially quoted in Crawdaddy).
* Brownstone, David M., and Irene M. Franck. "Jackson, Michael Joe". 20th century culture: a dictionary of the arts and literature of our time. Prentice Hall. 1991. ISBN 0132105195 p.187, longer excerpt
* Bronson, Fred. "The Top 50 Songs of The Jacksons". Billboard's hottest hot 100 hits. Billboard Books. 1991. ISBN 0823075702 p.9, page image "The group began as a trio with Sigmund Esco (Jackie), Toriano Adaryll (Tito), and Jermaine LaJuane. Marlon David and Michael Joe joined later. Michael was only five when the brothers--named the Jackson 5 by a neighbor in Gary, Indiana--made their professional debut in a local nightclub."
* "Jackson2...4. Michael (Joe)." Collins English Dictionary, 3rd ed. HarperCollins, 1991. ISBN 0004332865 p.824 (1994 updated 3rd ed. ISBN 0004706773 p.824; 1998 4th ed. ISBN 0004704533 p.820)
* Morehead, Phillip D., and Anne MacNeil. "Jackson, Michael (Joe)". The new American dictionary of music. Dutton. 1991. ISBN 052593345X p.253
* Gammond, Peter. "Jackson, Michael Joe". The Oxford companion to popular music. Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 0193113236 p.287, page image
- "Jackson Five, The. The Jacksons." p.288
* Warner, Jay. "The Jackson 5". The Billboard book of American singing groups: a history, 1940-1990. Billboard Books, 1992. ISBN 0823082644 p.493 (The full page is online in the 2006 book American Singing Groups: A History from 1940 to Today by Jay Warner).
* Ragan, David. "Jackson, Michael". Who's who in Hollywood: the largest cast of international film personalities ever assembled, Vol. 1. Facts on File, 1992. ISBN 0816020116 (set), 0816020094 (vol. 1). p.810 "Onscreen first in 1973 with his brothers, as the Jackson Five, in Save the Children. Onscreen on his own from 1978. IN: The Wiz. BORN: Michael Joe Jackson; August 29, 1958; Gary, Ind."
* Balfe, S.F., and P.J. Leese. "The World of Music: IV. Special Topic". Pears cyclopaedia: 1992-93, 101st ed. Ed. Chris Cook. Pelham Books, 1992. ISBN 0720720087 p.E34 "Jackson, Michael (Joe) (b 1958)" (1993-94 102nd ed. ISBN 0720720249 p.E34, 1994-95 103rd ed. ISBN 0720720370 p.E34).
* Australian National Bibliography 1992. National Library of Australia, ISSN 0004-9816 pp. 690, 102, 109, 333, 543, 559, 260. p. 690 "Jackson, Michael (Michael Joe), 1958-. Black or white [music]/ written and composed by Michael Jackson.--North Sydney, N.S. W.: Warner Bros. Music (Australia) trading as Warner Chapell Music...Jackson, Michael (Michael Joe), 1958-. Heal the world [music]/...Jackson, Michael (Michael Joe), 1958-. Remember the time [music]/ words & music Michael Jackson, Bernard Belle, Teddy Riley."
- pp. 333, 260; "Jackson, Michael (Michael Joe), 1958-. Black or white [music]...Heal the world [music]...Remember the time [music]..."; pp. 102, 109, 543, 559 (Listings of individual songs by their titles and by the co-writers of "Remember the Time").

* Australian National Bibliography 1993, Volume 1. National Library of Australia, 1994. ISSN 0004-9816 p.671 "Jackson, Michael (Michael Joe), 1958-. Give in to me [music] / words and music by Michael Jackson, Bill Bottrell ; arranged by Joe Travers."
* "Jackson, Michael". Academic American Encyclopedia, Volume 11. Grolier Inc. 1993, 1994. ISBN 0717220478, 0717220532 p.343, page image (1995 edition ISBN 0717220591 p.343, page image. Same quote in: "Jackson, Michael". Encyclopaedia of humanities and social sciences, Volume 23. Anmol Publications. 1992. p.14, page image)
* Romanowski, Patricia, Holly George-Warren, and Jon Pareles, eds. "The Jackson 5/The Jacksons/The Jackson Family". The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Fireside, 1995. ISBN 0684810441 p.487 "Michael Joe Jackson (b. Aug. 29, 1958, Gary), lead voc."
* "Jackson5 Michael (Joe)". The Oxford Encyclopedic English dictionary, 2nd ed.. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0195211588 p.752 (Same definiton in the 1996 The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 2nd ed. ISBN 0198600461 p.752).
* Jarvis, Everett Grant. "Original Names of the Stars: Jackson's, The", "Who is Related to Whom?--Off Screen: Showbiz Brothers: Michael Jackson". Final curtain: deaths of noted movie and TV personalities, 1912-1996, 8th ed. Carol Pub. Group, 1996. ISBN 0806518189 p.335, p.378; page image (Also in the 1998 9th ed. ISBN 0806520582 pp.431, 476).
* Bronson, Fred. "I Want You Back, The Jackson Five". The Billboard Book of Number One Hits, 4th ed.. Billboard Books. 1997-12-01. ISBN 0823076415 p.267, page image (1992 3rd edition ISBN 0823082989 p.267)
* "Michael Joe Jackson". Encyclopedia of World Biography, Vol. 8. Detroit: Gale, 1998. ISBN 0787625485 p.178
* "Jackson4, Michael (Joe)". The New Oxford Dictionary of English. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 019861263X p.974
* "Jackson2...7 Michael (Joe)". The Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 019541120X p.751
* "Jackson6, Michael (Joe)". The Australian Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0195507932 p.701
* Cowden, Robert H. "Individual Singers, A-Z: Jackson Five". Popular singers of the twentieth century: a bibliography of biographical materials. Greenwood Press, 1999-07-30. ISBN 0313293333 p.229, page image
* The above 1990 edition of the Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music and the books noting federal court cases with "Michael Joe Jackson d/b/a Mijac Music" as a plaintiff.
* Hardy, Phil. "The Jackson Five". The Faber Companion to 20th-Century Popular Music, fully rev. 3rd ed. Faber & Faber, 2001. ISBN 057119608X p.478
* Romanowski, Patricia, Holly George-Warren, and Jon Pareles, eds. "The Jackson 5/The Jacksons/The Jackson Family". The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, 3rd ed. Fireside, 2001. ISBN 0743201205 p.476
* Bronson, Fred. "I Want You Back, The Jackson Five". The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, 5th ed. Billboard Books / Random House Digital, Inc. 2003. ISBN 0823076776 p.267
* Bronson, Fred. "The Top 50 Songs of The Jacksons".Billboard's hottest hot 100 hits, 3rd ed. Billboard Books, 2003. ISBN 0823077381 p.25, page image (2007 4th ed. ISBN 0823015564 p.27)
* "Jackson4, Michael (Joe)". Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0198613474 p.924 (2010 3rd ed. ISBN 0199571120 p.933)
* Tyle, Laura B., ed. "Jackson, Michael". UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography, Vol. 6. Detroit: UXL, 2003. ISBN 0787664715 p.986
* "Jackson2...5 Michael (Joe)". Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0195418166 p.804 (2001 edition i.e. 1998 edition revised with supplement ISBN 0195417313 p.751)
* "Jackson4, Michael (Joe)". The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0195584511 p.578
* "Michael Jackson Verdict Read". CNN BREAKING NEWS (Transcript). CNN. June 13, 2005. "...California, plaintiff, versus Michael Joe Jackson, defendant, case number 1133603..."
* Warner, Jay. "The Jackson 5". American Singing Groups: A History from 1940 to Today. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006. ISBN 0634099787 p.493, page image (Also in: Warner, Jay. "The Jackson 5". The Da Capo book of American singing groups: a history, 1940-1990. Da Capo Press, 2000. ISBN 0306809230 p.493).
* Stuessy, Joe, and Scott David Lipscomb. "Michael Jackson". Rock and roll: its history and stylistic development, 5th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. ISBN 0131930982 p.389, page image (2003 4th ed. ISBN 0130993700 pp.347-348, 2009 6th ed. ISBN 0136010687 p.298, page image)
* Barak, Gregg, ed. "Cameras In The Courtroom". Battleground: Criminal Justice, Volume 1. Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO, 2007. ISBN 0313340406 (set), 0313340413 (vol. 1) p.62, page image "California v. Michael Joe Jackson"
* "Remembering Michael Jackson; Farrah Fawcett Mourned". ANDERSON COOPER 360 DEGREES (Transcript). CNN. June 25, 2009. "...born Michael Joe Jackson in 1958..."
* House of Representatives. "Moment of silence in tribute to Michael Jackson". Congressional Record: 111th Congress (2009-2010). THOMAS (Library of Congress). June 26, 2009. [Page: H7462] Video
* George, Nelson. Thriller: The Musical Life of Michael Jackson. Da Capo Press, 2010. ISBN 0306818787 p.64, page image
* "Jackson, Michael". page image Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English). Oxford University Press, April 2010.
* "Jackson2...3 Michael (Joe)." Collins Canadian Dictionary, 1st ed. HarperCollins, 2010. ISBN 9780007337521 p.483
* "Jackson2...2 Michael (Joe)." Collins English Dictionary, 11th ed. HarperCollins, 2011. ISBN 9780007437863 (U.K. edition) p.875 (2000 5th edition ISBN 0004725328 p.820)
* "2Jackson...5. Michael (Joe)." page image Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
* "Michael Jackson". page image WordNet, A lexical database for English (WordNet Search - 3.1). Princeton University, 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-21.

^ Note that "Marilyn Monroe" is not a birth name even though it is on her grave and on documents throughout her adult life e.g.:
* "Say Goodbye to the President". Christopher Olgiati. BBC. 1985. (Two videos below)
Autopsy report at 2:01                  Police Death Report at 2:50

* "The Marilyn Tapes". 48 Hours. CBS News. 2006-04-22. Autopsy report at 2:18 & 4:48 and 'Certificate of Death' at 2:44 & 5:02 here:;storyMediaBox

* "Lot 378 of 410: MARILYN MONROE LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT". Julien's Summer Entertainment Sale (#20083) 06/21/2008. Julien's Auctions. Title page, p.1 "I, MARILYN MONROE, do make, publish and declare this to be my Last Will and Testament."
* The stage name Marilyn Monroe was also used on legal documents that do not explicitly state her true/legal name (e.g. the documents listed below that are not primary identification and do not have "true name" statements) for years before it became her legal name by legal name change in 1956:
- Churchwell, Sarah Bartlett. The many lives of Marilyn Monroe, 1st U.S. edition. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2005 (originally London: Granta Books, 2004). ISBN 0805078185 p.139 "But she was twenty-nine, and presumably believed that the name would be hers for decades to come: in fact, she legally changed her name in March 1956, the same year that she wed Arthur Miller and won her major battle with 20th Century-Fox for more control over her films."
- Spoto, Donald. "Chapter Sixteen 1956". Marilyn Monroe: the biography, 1st ed. HarperCollins Publishers. 1993. ISBN 0060179872 p.345, page image (Full p.345 online in the 1993 Rowman & Littlefield edition ISBN 0815411839). 'But neither columnists nor government agents went so far as to see any dark significance in one event that February: on March 12, Norma Jeane Mortensen[1] last legally became Marilyn Monroe. "I am an actress and I found my name a handicap," she testified. "I have been using the name I wish to assume, Marilyn Monroe, for many years and I am now known professionally by that name." [Other books noting the name change hearing].
[1] More information below on Marilyn's early names and the procedures to change a person's legal name.
* From FBI Records:
The FBI did not state her "true name" and used "Marilyn Monroe" as her name before her March 1956 legal name change on the following pages:
Marilyn Monroe Part 1 of 2 p.4, p.5
Marilyn Monroe Part 2 of 2 pp.4-6 (p.5 name in last "Comment" section), pp.16-17 (p.17 " the movie actress MARILYN MONROE..."), p.42
Julien's Auctions (More documents from before the legal name change in the auctions).
* Hollywood Legends (#2) 06/26/2010
- "Lot 772 of 1336: MARILYN MONROE LIFE INSURANCE POLICY AND TWO CHECKS" "Security Mutual Life Insurance Company...issued to Marilyn Monroe on February 15, 1956"
- "Lot 817 of 1336: MARILYN MONROE CHEST X-RAY" "Cedars of Lebanon Hospital/Drs. E. Freedman and S. Finck/ Name Di Maggio Marilyn/ No. 50612 Date 11-10-54/"
* Julien's Summer Entertainment Sale (#20074) 06/16/2007
- Lot 118 of 329: MARILYN MONROE 1099 TAX FORM FROM 1954
* "Lot 186 of 517: MARILYN MONROE SIGNED CONTRACT" (July 3, 1952) Legends (#555) 10/21/2011
* "Lot 296 of 410: MARILYN MONROE'S BANK STATEMENT FROM BANK OF AMERICA" (October 26, 1951 to November 24, 1951) Julien's Summer Entertainment Sale (#20083) 06/21/2008
* "Lot 455 of 980: MARILYN MONROE SIGNED LETTER" (Contractual letter dated May 8, 1951.) Hollywood Legends (#33112) 03/31/2012
Documents with the name Norma Jeane Dougherty
- "Lot 121 of 329: MARILYN MONROE AIRLINE GATE PASS". (December 23, 1953. The bottom of the plane ticket has "Norma Dougherty" as the "Name of Passenger.") Julien's Summer Entertainment Sale (#20074) 06/16/2007
* Icons & Idols Hollywood (#1212) 12/01/2011 (More documents in the auction).
- Lot 763 of 812: MARILYN MONROE / NORMA JEANE SIGNED CONTRACT (February 10, 1947)
- Lot 630 of 812: MARILYN MONROE SIGNED MODEL RELEASE FORM (March 10, 1946, signed "Norma Jeane Dougherty")
* Monroe, Marilyn. Fragments: Poems, Intimate Notes, Letters. Eds. Stanley Buchthal, Bernard Comment. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010-10-12. ISBN 9780374158354 p.5, page image "Norma Jeane married James Dougherty...on June 19, 1942"
* Churchwell p.144: "The name on her birth certificate is Norma Jeane Mortenson [Churchwell p.142]; the name on her baptismal certificate is Norma Jeane Baker; the name on her first marriage license is Norma Jeane Mortensen [Spoto p.75, page image '...on the marriage certificate the bride had signed "Norma Jeane Mortensen." She wrote that she was the daugher of "E. Mortensen...and of a woman named "Monroe, born in Oregon." She did not supply her mother's first name...']. The name by which her "original" identity is popularly known is Norma Jean Baker."
- In the "Acknowledgements" of Donald Spoto's biography, Spoto acknowledges assistance from people who knew Marilyn, and various archives and special collections including "materials that include her production and legal files as well as various personal documents, tapes..." from the estate of Milton H. Greene ("Marilyn's friend, photographer and business partner").
- Spoto pp.13-14, page image: ...the birth certificate identifies her as the daughter of Gladys Monroe...So easy was it, then as now, to omit, invent, and alter one's record, that Gladys simply claimed that her two earlier children had died. She added creatively that the residence of her husband, a baker she designated as "Edward Mortenson," was unknown. The child's birth registration in the California Board of Health's Vital Statistics stated her name as Norma Jeane Mortenson. In her youth, she was sometimes known as Norma Jeane Baker. From the age of twenty, she was Marilyn Monroe, but she declined to make that her legal name until seven years before her death.'
- Churchwell p.140: "According to both Summers and Spoto, Gladys then married a "Martin Edward Mortensen", from whom she separated after several months; he was apparently, not even in California when Gladys became pregnant in 1925."
- Banner, Lois, and Mark Anderson. MM--personal: from the private archive of Marilyn Monroe. New York: Abrams, 2011-03-01. ISBN 0810995875 p.164
'Marilyn's copy of her birth certificate, obtained in February 1962. ...Gladys was still married to Edward Mortensen, and she listed him as Marilyn's father although she misspelled the name as "Mortenson".
He was also not a baker, the occupation listed on the birth certificate. "Baker" was the last name of Gladys's first husband, John Newton Baker called Jasper. In the following years, Gladys most often called herself Gladys Baker and designated Norma Jeane as Norma Jeane Baker.'

- Banner p.165: Photograph of the same birth certificate on (Churchwell p.142) but not copied onto "State of California Certification of Vital Record" paper and without "DECEASED" stamped on it, a "Certified Copy of Local Record" document dated 5 Feb. 1962 certifying the copy of the birth certificate of "Norma Jeane Mortenson", and a document with the text
"Marilyn Monroe (legal name)
Born June 1, 1926
Norma Jeane Mortenson
Los Angeles, California
SS: # 563-32-0764"

From Julien's Auctions, Life magazine, and The Hollywood Museum:
- "Lot 424 of 980: MARILYN MONROE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA". Hollywood Legends (#33112) 03/31/2012. Julien's Auctions. "...for the ninth grade graduation of Norma Jeane Baker in 1941."
- "Lot 762 of 812: MARILYN MONROE EARLY SIGNED PHOTOGRAPH." Icons & Idols Hollywood (#1212) 12/01/2011. Julien's Auctions. 'Inscription reads "...Sincerely Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jeane)." ...signed at some time in 1947-48. Norma Jeane had begun using the name Marilyn Monroe in 1946 but did not change it officially until 10 years later.'
- "Hollywood Topic A-Plus / Marilyn Monroe: the talk of Hollywood". LIFE. 7 Apr 1952. p.104, page image "Marilyn's real name is Norma Jeane Mortenson, though she generally gives it as Baker, apparently because her father was a baker."
- "Merger of Two Worlds: Marilyn and Joe find a secret wedding is not for them". LIFE. 25 Jan 1954. p.32, image "marriage of a...and an orphan girl named Norma Jeane Mortenson."
- Marilyn's second marriage certificate, groom: "Joseph Paul Di Maggio" [Exhibited at The Hollywood Museum, formerly known as The Max Factor Museum and The Hollywood History Museum; via]
  * Typed names: "10. Name of bride: Norma Jeane Dougherty...19. Maiden name of bride if previously married: Norma Jean Mortenson"
  * "20. Bride (sign full name): Norma Jeane Mortenson Dougherty"
- "Lot 775 of 1336: MARILYN MONROE CECIL BEATON PHOTOGRAPH". Hollywood Legends (#2) 06/26/2010. Julien's Auctions. "...taken in 1956...The day after this photograph was taken Monroe legally changed her name to Marilyn Monroe, her stage name of many years." (Monroe, "Fragments" p.228 "taken by Cecil Beaton on February 22, 1956", photo on p.229)

^ Variance in the name can be allowed when the name is not being explicitly stated as the legal/true name and the identity is certain by other factors e.g. the stage name Marilyn Monroe was used on legal agreements, hospital records, tax documents, bank documents, and FBI documents, years before it became her legal name by a court order name change. There was also variance in her name and her mother's name on Marilyn's first marriage certificate, in the typed "maiden name of bride" on her second marriage certificate, and in the name of her father on her birth certificate.
^ California Courts: Change an Adult's Name
'Note: In California, you generally have the legal right to change your name simply by using a new name in all aspects of your life, also known as the "usage method." (Exceptions to this rule: "people who are in state prison, on probation, on parole, or been a convicted sex offender. And it cannot be used to change a minor's name.")
BUT, with few exceptions, government agencies require a court order as official proof of a name change' e.g. California DMV, U.S. State Department -> "If you have begun using a different name but cannot legally document the change with a court order, divorce decree, or marriage certificate [i.e. "use of spouse’s surname" on pp.10-13 of "NAMES TO BE USED IN PASSPORTS" manual] ...You must also present a valid ID issued in the name you currently use. You may also need to provide secondary identification evidence that you have been using the name for at least 5 years, if your ID is less than 5 years old."
- The length of a name does not affect whether it is a legal name or birth name e.g. Jo is a legal middle name of his sister Janet Jackson, born Janet Damita Jo Jackson. The U.S. Department of State has the same requirements for shortening or lengthening a name on a passport to a nickname or a formal name derivative of the name:
"7 FAM 1300 APPENDIX C NAMES TO BE USED IN PASSPORTS". U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7. Consular Affairs. CT:CON-449; 03-25-2013. Office of Origin: CA/OCS/L.
- pp. 5-6: "7 FAM 1316 Appendix C Minor Differences in Names (CT:CON-311; 08-07-2009)
The following minor differences may be approved provided that the identification documentation presented reflects the name requested on the application: ...
(7) Using Nickname or Formal Name instead of Legal Name with proper identification. A passport may be issued in an applicant’s nickname or formal name if it is a common derivative of the given name shown on the citizenship evidence (for example, Jim for James, Susan for Sue);"
- "Identification documentation" that "reflects the name requested" is described in
"The applicant must present an acceptable identification reflecting the acquired name and original or certified copies of three or more public documents evidencing that he or she has used the acquired name generally for five years or longer. The documentary evidence, which must show the acquired name and one other piece of identifying data, (such as date of birth, place of birth, age, or Social Security number)..." [e.g. marriage certificates, hospital birth records of your children, tax records, etc.]
- California Driver License and ID Card:
"Your true full name appears on your BD/LP document. If you change your name, then you must provide one of the following documents to verify your name change:
Adoption change document...Marriage certificate...document verifying the formation of a domestic partnership. Dissolution of marriage document that contains the legal name as a result of the court action."
[Sidenote: "CHANGE OF NAME FOR A MINOR" via adoption, use of parents' surnames, etc. also on pp.18-27 of the "Names to be used in passports" manual]

- Change of Name Process
"If you have to file a Petition for Change of Name in court, ...
Note: If you are a victim of domestic violence and are concerned about keeping your change of name confidential, there are ways for your new name to remain confidential and not appear on the court records."
- How-to Guide to Changing Your Name: Filing a Petition for Change of Name
"5. Publish the Order to Show Cause for Change of Name
In most cases you must publish the Order to Show Cause for Change of Name (Form NC-120) in a newspaper of general circulation once a week for 4 weeks in a row. Your court most likely has a list of newspapers that are approved for publishing legal notices. ...
6. Go to your court hearing" [e.g. Marilyn Monroe's name change hearing on 12 March 1956].

* He used the name Michael Joe Jackson consistently in his early career. It is is the only name explicitly identified by prominent sources with access to the original documents as the name on primary evidence of citizenship (birth certificate) and primary identification (drivers license with his DMV record and license application) and as his "true name" (i.e. legal name) during his lifetime by the FBI (with access to all of his U.S. government ID) and California Superior Court (with access to his passport). The birth name is the original name of the child on the birth certificate and the first legal name; and can be seen as the only legal name if no sources document a formal change of legal name e.g. primary identification with the new name, a court order name change, etc.
* His autopsy report states "ID METHOD: CALIFORNIA DRIVERS LICENSE" on p.1 but did not include an image of the license.
California Electronic Death Registration System
* CDC/NCHS - Physicians' Handbook on Medical Certification of Death
p.34 (p.41 of the pdf) "Completing Other Items on the Death Certificate
These instructions pertain to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death.
NAME OF DECEDENT: For use by physician or institution
The left-hand margin of the certificate contains a line where the physician or hospital can write in the name of the decedent. This allows the hospital to assist in completing the death certificate before the body is removed by the funeral director. However, because the funeral director is responsible for completion of the personal information about the decedent and because the hospital frequently does not have the complete legal name of the decedent, the hospital or physician should enter the name they have for the decedent in this item. The funeral director will then enter the full legal name in item 1."
Indiana State Department of Health: Vital Records - FAQ's
"Who may purchase birth and death certificates?
Indiana law (IC16-37-1-10 ) specifically requires a purchaser of a birth or death certificate to have a direct interest. A direct interest is defined as a documented personal financial or legal interest in the record, or immediate kinship (parent, grandparent, or adult sibling) to the person named on the record."
California Department of Public Health
* Birth, Death and Marriage Certificates > Authorized Copy vs. Informational Copy
'Informational Copy
If you cannot obtain an authorized copy under California law, you can obtain an informational copy. An informational copy contains the same information as an authorized copy, but will have a legend across the face with the statement "INFORMATIONAL, NOT A VALID DOCUMENT TO ESTABLISH IDENTITY." Authorized and informational copies are both "certified copies."'
* Birth, Death and Marriage Certificates > Correcting or Amending Vital Records
Court Order Name Change (PDF), p.6 (p.7 of the pdf)
"Once I file the amendment, what happens to my original birth certificate?
* The original record remains unchanged, and the amendment becomes page 2 of the birth certificate - making it a two-page document (per Health and Safety Code Sections 102140 and 103255).
* Anyone receiving a copy after the amendment is applied will receive a copy of both documents."

Other BMI songwriters:
ORBISON ROY KELTON (CAE/IPI #: 130158611) = ORBISON ROY K (CAE/IPI #: 22974973) = ORBISON ROY (CAE/IPI #: 130059417); CICCONE MADONNA LOUISE (CAE/IPI #: 128246872) = CICCONE MADONNA L (CAE/IPI #: 125053706) = MADONNA (CAE/IPI #: 211854787); JAMES ETTA (CAE/IPI #: 15069503) = HAWKINS JAMESETTA (CAE/IPI #: 13617021); LENNON JOHN = LENNON JOHN = LENNON JOHN WINSTON (All three with CAE/IPI #: 17798450); LADY GAGA (CAE/IPI #: 519338540) = GERMANOTTA STEFANI (CAE/IPI #: 519338442) = GERMANOTTA STEFANI J (CAE/IPI #: 519338344); JACKSON REBBIE = BROWN MAUREEN JACKSON REBBIE (Both with CAE/IPI #: 229024098) does not have all library catalog entries; search individual library catalogs to be certain. Also, library catalogs may not use the listed ISBN e.g. the ISBN for a volume in a series of books, a different edition with a different ISBN, or an edition with different printings may have multiple ISBNs.